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Επιδημιολογία και πρόληψη της γρίπης
Παρασκευή, 02.28.2014, 11:01pm

 

 

ACOEM Practice Guidelines: Opioids and Safety-Sensitive Work
Τρίτη, 07.01.2014, 03:00am
Objective: ACOEM has updated the treatment guidelines concerning opioids. This report highlights the safety-sensitive work recommendation that has been developed.Methods: Comprehensive literature reviews were accomplished with article abstraction, critiquing, grading, evidence table compilation, and guideline finalization by a multidisciplinary expert panel to develop evidence-based guidance. A total of 12 moderate-quality studies were identified to address motor vehicle crash risk, and none regarding other work among opioid-using patients.Results: Acute or chronic opioid use is not recommended for patients who perform safety-sensitive jobs. These jobs include operating motor vehicles, other modes of transportation, forklift driving, overhead crane operation, heavy equipment operation and tasks involving high levels of cognitive function and judgment.Conclusion: Quality evidence consistently demonstrates increased risk of vehicle crashes and is recommended as the surrogate for other safety-sensitive work tasks.
Mindfulness Goes to Work: Impact of an Online Workplace Intervention
Τρίτη, 07.01.2014, 03:00am
Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether a mindfulness program, created for the workplace, was both practical and efficacious in decreasing employee stress while enhancing resiliency and well-being.Methods: Participants (89) recruited from The Dow Chemical Company were selected and randomly assigned to an online mindfulness intervention (n = 44) or wait-list control (n = 45). Participants completed the Perceived Stress Scale, the Five Facets of Mindfulness Questionnaire, the Connor-Davidson Resiliency Scale, and the Shirom Vigor Scale at pre- and postintervention and 6-month follow-up.Results: The results indicated that the mindfulness intervention group had significant decreases in perceived stress as well as increased mindfulness, resiliency, and vigor.Conclusions: This online mindfulness intervention seems to be both practical and effective in decreasing employee stress, while improving resiliency, vigor, and work engagement, thereby enhancing overall employee well-being.
Employment Status Matters: A Statewide Survey of Quality-of-Life, Prevention Behaviors, and Absenteeism and Presenteeism
Τρίτη, 07.01.2014, 03:00am
Objective: To estimate quality-of-life (QoL), primary care, health insurance, prevention behaviors, absenteeism, and presenteeism in a statewide sample of the unemployed, self-employed, and organizationally employed.Methods: A statewide survey of 1602 Iowans included items from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention QoL and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey prevention behavior questionnaires used to assess employee well-being; their indicator results are related to World Health Organization's Health and Work Performance Questionnaire-derived absenteeism and presenteeism scores.Results: The unemployed exhibited poorer QoL and prevention behaviors; the self-employed exhibited many better QoL scores due largely to better prevention behaviors than those employed by organizations. Higher QoL measures and more prevention behaviors are associated with lower absenteeism and lower presenteeism.Conclusions: Employment status is related to measures of well-being, which are also associated with absenteeism and presenteeism.
The Association Between Optimal Lifestyle-Related Health Behaviors and Employee Productivity
Τρίτη, 07.01.2014, 03:00am
Objective: To investigate the association between lifestyle-related health behaviors including sleep and the cluster of physical activity, no tobacco use, fruits and vegetables intake, and alcohol consumption termed the “Optimal Lifestyle Metric” (OLM), and employee productivity.Methods: Data were obtained from employee health assessments (N = 18,079). Regression techniques were used to study the association between OLM and employee productivity, sleep and employee productivity, and the interaction of both OLM and sleep on employee productivity.Results: Employees who slept less or more than 7 or 8 hours per night experienced significantly more productivity loss. Employees who adhered to all four OLM behaviors simultaneously experienced less productivity loss compared with those who did not.Conclusions: Adequate sleep and adherence to the OLM cluster of behaviors are associated with significantly less productivity loss.
Medical Evacuations From Oil Rigs off the Gulf Coast of the United States From 2008 to 2012: Reasons and Cost Implications
Τρίτη, 07.01.2014, 03:00am
Objective: To identify reasons for air medical evacuations from oil rigs/platforms.Methods: Retrospective review of data of medical calls from 102 rigs/platforms in the US Gulf Coast from 2008 through 2012 with specific analysis of medevacs.Results: On average, 1609 total calls per year relating to illness or injury on the 102 oil rigs/platforms with 4% to 7% requiring medical air evacuation. On average, 77% of medevacs were for nonoccupational medical injury or illness.Conclusions: Illness, not occupational injuries, is identified as the major reason for medical evacuations from oil rigs. Heart disease is the leading cause of chronic health conditions resulting in a medevac.
The Association Between Worksite Physical Environment and Employee Nutrition, and Physical Activity Behavior and Weight Status
Τρίτη, 07.01.2014, 03:00am
Objective: To explore the relationship between worksite physical environment and employee dietary intake, physical activity behavior, and weight status.Methods: Two trained research assistants completed audits (Checklist of Health Promotion Environments at Worksites) at each worksite (n = 28). Employees (n = 6261) completed a brief health survey before participation in a weight loss program.Results: Employees' access to outdoor areas was directly associated with lower body mass index (BMI), whereas access to workout facilities within a worksite was associated with higher BMI. The presence of a cafeteria and fewer vending machines was directly associated with better eating habits. Better eating habits and meeting physical activity recommendations were both related to lower BMI.Conclusions: Selected environmental factors in worksites were significantly associated with employee behaviors and weight status, providing additional intervention targets to change the worksite environment and promote employee weight loss.
Group Purchasing of Workplace Health Promotion Services for Small Employers
Τρίτη, 07.01.2014, 03:00am
Objective: Small employers are underserved with workplace health promotion services, so we explored the potential for group purchasing of these services.Methods: We conducted semistructured telephone interviews of member organizations serving small employers, as well as workplace health promotion vendors, in Washington State.Results: We interviewed 22 employer organizations (chambers of commerce, trade associations, and an insurance trust) and vendors (of fitness facilities, healthy vending machines, fresh produce delivery, weight management services, and tobacco cessation quitlines). Both cautiously supported the idea of group purchasing but felt that small employers' workplace health promotion demand must increase first. Vendors providing off-site services, for example, quitline, found group purchasing more feasible than vendors providing on-site services, for example, produce delivery.Conclusions: Employer member organizations are well-positioned to group purchase workplace health promotion services; vendors are receptive if there is potential profit.
Multisource Data for Total Worker Health Insights
Τρίτη, 07.01.2014, 03:00am
No abstract available
Mortality and Cancer Incidence in Aluminum Smelter Workers: A 5-Year Update
Τρίτη, 07.01.2014, 03:00am
Objective: To determine the mortality and cancer incidence of aluminum smelter workers.Method: The experience of 17,089 workers between 1950 and 2004 was studied.Results: There were 25 deaths/47 female incident cancers and 6350 deaths/3984 male incident cancers. Mortality was significantly elevated for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Alzheimer disease (likely influenced by regional factors), all cancers, stomach, bladder, and lung cancers. Incidence was significantly elevated for bladder, lung, and laryngeal cancers. Digestive, lung, and bladder cancer mortality and lung, bladder, and buccal cancer incidence increased significantly with benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) exposure. Over time lung cancer risk has diminished but bladder cancer risk has not.Conclusions: Bladder cancer incidence was not increased at B(a)P exposures below 40 μg/m3·yr. Occupational origins for other cancers occurring above expected rates but probably unrelated to B(a)P exposure cannot be excluded. In the prebake plant, nonsignificant increases of lung cancer were observed between 2000 and 2004.
Association of Occupational Trajectories With Alcohol Use Disorders in a Longitudinal National Survey
Τρίτη, 07.01.2014, 03:00am
Objectives: We investigated longitudinal associations between occupation and alcohol use disorders (AUDs) across early- to mid-adult life.Methods: Longitudinal trajectories of work substantive complexity were constructed by growth mixture modeling of occupational data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 and O*NET work variables. The association between work trajectories and AUDs was modeled adjusting for education.Results: Lower work trajectories were associated with higher AUD prevalence and incidence. Incident AUDs were associated with a subsequent decline in work trajectory class for both high and low initial classes, more strongly in women despite lower overall AUD incidence.Conclusions: Low work trajectory is associated with increased AUD prevalence. Development of an AUD may presage risk of decline in work substantive complexity. These findings suggest reinforcing relations between the development of AUD and occupational course at midlife.
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