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Ο καρκίνος «θερίζει» τους διασώστες των Δίδυμων Πύργων
Δευτέρα, 07.28.2014, 11:44pm

 

 

Exploring the Usefulness of Occupational Exposure Registries for Surveillance: The Case of the Ontario Asbestos Workers Registry (1986–2012)
Τετάρτη, 10.01.2014, 03:00am
Objective: The ongoing presence of asbestos in products used across workplaces in Canada reinforces the importance of occupational exposure surveillance. This study evaluates the usefulness of the Ontario Asbestos Workers Registry.Methods: The study includes 30,829 workers aged 15 to 80 years. Researchers reported on the data quality and analyzed the proportions of workers exposed by industry, and standardized rates by geographic areas and over time.Results: The incidence of exposure started to decrease around 1990; but about 2000 workers were still exposed annually until 2006. Results showed large geographical disparities. Unexpectedly, workers from industries other than construction reported exposure.Conclusions: The Ontario Asbestos Workers Registry is a useful but challenging source of information for the surveillance of asbestos exposure in Ontario. The registry could benefit from well-defined surveillance objectives, a clear exposure definition, systematic enforcement, regular data analyses, and results dissemination.
Outdoor Air Pollution and Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest in Okayama, Japan
Τετάρτη, 10.01.2014, 03:00am
Objectives: We evaluated the association between short-term exposure to outdoor air pollution and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Japan.Methods: We studied 558 residents of Okayama, Japan, who visited hospital emergency departments between January 2006 and December 2010 for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest using a time-stratified case-crossover design. We calculated city-representative average concentrations of different air pollutants and examined the association between air pollution and cardiac arrest.Results: Exposure to air pollution was associated with an elevated risk of cardiac arrest; for example, odds ratios was 1.17 (95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 1.33) per interquartile-range increase in suspended particulate matter concentrations in the previous 48 to 72 hours. We also observed different susceptibilities to suspended particulate matter and ozone exposures by age category.Conclusions: Short-term exposure to outdoor air pollution was associated with increased risk of cardiac arrest.
Diabetes Wellness Care: A Successful Employer-Endorsed Program for Employees
Τετάρτη, 10.01.2014, 03:00am
Objective: A 12-month wellness program was provided for employees of a major employer in the Orlando area.Methods: The program involved screening and measurement of baseline indices, educational sessions, telephonic support, quarterly laboratory monitoring, and provision of glucometers and test strips.Results: For the 73 enrolled employees with prediabetes, serum hemoglobin A1c levels—mean (standard deviation)—decreased from 6.10% (0.53%) to 5.42% (0.51%) (P < 0.0001). For the 151 enrolled employees with diabetes, mean serum hemoglobin A1c levels—mean (standard deviation)—decreased from 8.03% (1.91%) to 7.48% (1.52%) (P < 0.0001). In the 12 months before, during, and after the program, 27, 15, and 27 diabetic employees required hospitalization, respectively. Health insurance per member per month claims costs for employees with diabetes rose only 1.2% over the prior 12 months, and self-reported presenteeism increased (P < 0.0001).Conclusions: This employer-endorsed program achieved favorable outcomes for employees with prediabetes and diabetes.
Workaholism and Mental Health Problems Among Municipal Middle Managers in Norway
Τετάρτη, 10.01.2014, 03:00am
Objective: To provide empirical knowledge about the antecedents and outcomes of workaholism among municipal middle managers within the framework of the job demands–resources model.Methods: We used a self-administered questionnaire to collect cross-sectional data (n = 118) on job demands, job resources, work engagement, workaholism, and mental health problems.Results: Workaholism correlated positively with both work engagement and mental health problems. Job demands affected workaholism and mental health problems more strongly than did job resources. The results indicate that workaholism does not mediate the effects of certain work characteristics on mental health problems, but rather that workaholics create excessive job demands that harm their health.Conclusions: Preventing workaholism should be a central concern of municipal stakeholders because workaholic behavior among middle managers may harm organizational performance and employee health and middle managers' own health.
The Health of Young US Workers
Τετάρτη, 10.01.2014, 03:00am
Objectives: To provide an overview of the health status of young US workers across four domains: functional health, physical and psychological health, health behavior, and health care utilization.Methods: Pooled data from the 2004 to 2010 National Health Interview Survey were analyzed for 11,279 US workers aged 18 to 24 years, representing an estimated 16.9 million workers annually. Thirty-nine health indicators were examined and compared across nine occupational groups.Results: Compared with other occupational groups, craft workers and laborers and helpers had the highest prevalence of risky health behaviors, including current smoking and risky drinking, as well as fewer reported visits to a primary care physician in the past year.Conclusions: Young workers engage in risky health behaviors, and may benefit from targeted workplace interventions to mitigate the potentially negative long-term effects on health and well-being.
Do Workplace Health Promotion (Wellness) Programs Work?
Δευτέρα, 09.01.2014, 03:00am
Objective: To respond to the question, “Do workplace health promotion programs work?”Methods: A compilation of the evidence on workplace programs' effectiveness coupled with recommendations for critical review of outcome studies. Also, reviewed are recent studies questioning the value of workplace programs.Results: Evidence accumulated over the past three decades shows that well-designed and well-executed programs that are founded on evidence-based principles can achieve positive health and financial outcomes.Conclusions: Employers seeking a program that “works” are urged to consider their goals and whether they have an organizational culture that can facilitate success. Employers who choose to adopt a health promotion program should use best and promising practices to maximize the likelihood of achieving positive results.
Occupational and Biopsychosocial Risk Factors for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Δευτέρα, 09.01.2014, 03:00am
Objective: To investigate a biopsychosocial model of risk for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). In addition, a host of exploratory psychosocial variables was investigated as potential risk factors for CTS.Methods: A case–control design was used comparing 87 CTS and 74 sex-matched general orthopedic patients from an outpatient orthopedic clinic. All participants underwent the same diagnostic protocol (ie, physical evaluation and electrodiagnostic testing) and completed a self-report questionnaire assessing a wide range of potential occupational, personological, and psychosocial risk factors.Results: Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that occupational repetition, not engaging in vigorous exercise, physical activities with wrist strain, poorer physical health, and lower job satisfaction were significantly related to the presence of CTS. Obesity was borderline significantly related to the presence of CTS.Conclusions: The biopsychosocial model provides a useful heuristic for conceptualizing CTS risk among injured workers.
The Association of Self-Reported Employee Physical Activity With Metabolic Syndrome, Health Care Costs, Absenteeism, and Presenteeism
Δευτέρα, 09.01.2014, 03:00am
Objective: To examine employees' self-reported physical activity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) risks and their association with health-related workplace outcomes.Methods: Employees participated in a health risk appraisal in 2010. Generalized Linear Modeling was used to test the association between MetS risk factors, physical activity, and the outcome measures while controlling for confounders.Results: MetS was found in 30.2% of employees. Health care costs for employees with MetS who reported sufficient exercise (150 or more minutes/week) totaled $2770 compared with $3855 for nonsufficient exercisers. The percentage of employees with MetS who had absenteeism and presenteeism was also significantly lower for employees achieving sufficient physical activity. All risk factors for MetS were mitigated for regular exercisers.Conclusions: Employers should consider programs and services to support regular aerobic exercise to address the growing prevalence and costs of MetS in the workforce.
Changes in Outdoor Workers' Sun-Related Attitudes, Beliefs, and Behaviors: A Pre–Post Workplace Intervention
Δευτέρα, 09.01.2014, 03:00am
Objective: To evaluate changes in outdoor workers' sun-related attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors in response to a health promotion intervention using a participatory action research process.Methods: Fourteen workplaces across four outdoor industry types worked collaboratively with the project team to develop tailored sun protection action plans. Workers were assessed before and after the 18-month intervention.Results: Outdoor workers reported increases in workplace support for sun protection (P < 0.01) and personal use of sun protection (P < 0.01). More workers reported seeking natural shade (+20%) and wearing more personal protective equipment, including broad-brimmed hats (+25%), long-sleeved collared shirts (+19%), and long trousers (+16%). The proportion of workers reporting sunburn over the past 12 months was lower at postintervention (−14%) (P = 0.03); however, the intensity of reported sunburn increased.Conclusions: This intervention was successful in increasing workers' sun protective attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors.
Reproductive Health Risks Associated With Occupational Exposures to Antineoplastic Drugs in Health Care Settings: A Review of the Evidence
Δευτέρα, 09.01.2014, 03:00am
Objectives: Antineoplastic drugs are known reproductive and developmental toxicants. Our objective was to review the existing literature of reproductive health risks to workers who handle antineoplastic drugs.Methods: A structured literature review of 18 peer-reviewed, English language publications of occupational exposure and reproductive outcomes was performed.Results: Although effect sizes varied with study size and population, occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs seems to raise the risk of both congenital malformations and miscarriage. Studies of infertility and time to pregnancy also suggested an increased risk for subfertility.Conclusions: Antineoplastic drugs are highly toxic in patients receiving treatment, and adverse reproductive effects have been well documented in these patients. Health care workers with long-term, low-level occupational exposure to these drugs also seem to have an increased risk of adverse reproductive outcomes. Additional precautions to prevent exposure should be considered.
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