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Επιδημιολογία και πρόληψη της γρίπης
Παρασκευή, 02.28.2014, 11:01pm

 

 

Iraq Dust Is Respirable, Sharp, and Metal-Laden and Induces Lung Inflammation With Fibrosis in Mice via IL-2 Upregulation and Depletion of Regulatory T Cells
Σάβατο, 03.01.2014, 03:00am
Objectives: Determine whether surface dust grab samples taken from a large military base in Iraq are toxic and respirable.Methods: X-ray diffraction for mineral content, x-ray fluorescence for elemental content, in vivo mouse dust challenges for assessment of histological changes, bronchoalveolar lavage for cytokines, polarizing light microscopy for crystals in lung tissue, and Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting for cell surface and intracellular markers were utilized.Results: Camp Victory, Iraq dust taken during wartime contains respirable particles 2.5 microns in size, constituting particulate matter air pollution. Dust particles are angular and have sharp edges. Trace metals (including titanium) calcium and silicon are present. Mice with airway instillation of dust have polarizable crystals in lung and septate inflammation. Regulatory T cells (CD4+CD25+FOXP3+) are decreased in thymus and spleen. Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is upregulated in bronchoalveolar lavage.Conclusions: Respirable Iraq dust leads to lung inflammation in mice similar to that seen in patients with polarizable crystals, which seem to be titanium.
Comparing the Contributions of Well-Being and Disease Status to Employee Productivity
Σάβατο, 03.01.2014, 03:00am
Objective: To compare employee overall well-being to chronic disease status, which has a long-established relationship to productivity, as relative contributors to on-the-job productivity.Methods: Data from two annual surveys of three companies were used in longitudinal analyses of well-being as a predictor of productivity level and productivity change among 2629 employees with diabetes or without any chronic conditions.Results: Well-being was the most significant predictor of productivity cross-sectionally in a model that included disease status and demographic characteristics. Longitudinally, changes in well-being contributed to changes in productivity above and beyond what could be explained by the presence of chronic disease or other fixed characteristics.Conclusions: These findings support the use of well-being as the broader framework for understanding, explaining, and improving employee productivity in both the healthy and those with disease.
Effectiveness of a Combined Social and Physical Environmental Intervention on Presenteeism, Absenteeism, Work Performance, and Work Engagement in Office Employees
Σάβατο, 03.01.2014, 03:00am
Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of a combined social and physical environmental intervention as well as the effectiveness of both separate interventions.Methods: In a 2 × 2 factorial design, 412 office employees were allocated to the combined social and physical environmental intervention, to the social environmental intervention only, to the physical environmental intervention only, or were part of the control group. Data on presenteeism, absenteeism, work performance, and work engagement were obtained with questionnaires at baseline, 6, and 12 months. Multilevel analyses were performed.Results: The combined intervention showed a decrease in contextual performance and dedication. The social environmental intervention showed an improvement in task performance. The physical environmental intervention revealed an improvement in absorption.Conclusion: Although the study showed some promising results, it is not recommended to implement the current interventions.
Remain in Work—What Work-Related Factors Are Associated With Sustainable Work Attendance: A General Population-Based Study of Women and Men
Σάβατο, 03.01.2014, 03:00am
Objective: To analyze if organizational climate and work commitment, demand and control, job strain, social support, and physical demands at work are associated with remain in work (RIW), that is, work attendance without sick leave over 15 days per year.Methods: This Swedish cross-sectional study was based on 4013 workers (aged 19 to 64 years), randomly selected from a general population. Data were collected (2008) through postal questionnaire and registers.Results: Fair organizational climate, the combination of fair organizational climate and fair work commitment, high control, and low physical demands were associated with RIW for women and men.Conclusions: This study adds to the rather scarce research findings on factors that promote RIW by identifying work organizational factors and physical prerequisites as being important. Preventive work to create a healthy work environment could be directed at improving organizational climate and reducing physical demands.
Office Workers' Objectively Measured Sedentary Behavior and Physical Activity During and Outside Working Hours
Σάβατο, 03.01.2014, 03:00am
Objective: To examine objectively determined sedentary behavior and physical activity (PA) during and outside working hours in full-time office workers.Methods: A total of 170 participants wore an ActiGraph GT1M accelerometer for 7 days. Time spent sedentary (
Factors Associated With Heat Strain Among Workers at an Aluminum Smelter in Texas
Σάβατο, 03.01.2014, 03:00am
Objectives: To determine the prevalence of heat strain and factors associated with heat strain among workers at an aluminum smelter in Texas.Methods: Continuous core body temperature (Tc), heart rate, and pre- and postshift serum electrolytes, and urine specific gravity were measured, and symptom questionnaires were administered.Results: Most participants (54%) had 1 or more signs of heat strain. Unacclimatized participants were significantly more likely to exceed the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists–recommended Tc than acclimatized participants (88% vs 20%; P < 0.01). Participants who exceeded the Tc for their acclimatization status and/or exceeded the recommended sustained peak HR had a significantly lower body mass index than those who did not (27.6 vs 31.8 and 28.4 vs 32.4, respectively; P = 0.01).Conclusions: Employees and management need to strictly adhere to a heat stress management program to minimize heat stress and strain.
News Highlights
Σάβατο, 03.01.2014, 03:00am
No abstract available
Dietary Inflammatory Index Scores Differ by Shift Work Status: NHANES 2005 to 2010
Σάβατο, 02.01.2014, 03:00am
Objective: Shift workers are affected by diet- and inflammation-related diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer. We examined a dietary inflammatory index (DII) in relation to shift work from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data (2005 to 2010).Methods: The DII was calculated using data from a 24-hour dietary recall. Shift work categories included day workers, evening/night shift workers, or rotating shift workers. General linear models were fit to examine the relationship between shift work and adjusted mean DII values.Results: Among all shift workers and specifically rotating shift workers, higher (ie, more pro-inflammatory) mean DII scores (1.01 and 1.07 vs 0.86; both P ≤ 0.01) were observed compared with day workers. Women tended to express strong evening/night shift effects.Conclusions: More proinflammatory diets observed among shift workers may partially explain increased inflammation-related chronic disease risk observed in other studies among shift workers compared with their day-working counterparts.
Response to “Hits and Misses: Screening Commercial Drivers for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Using Guidelines Recommended by a Joint Task Force” by Platt et al
Σάβατο, 02.01.2014, 03:00am
No abstract available
Cognitive Disorders and Tau-Protein Expression Among Retired Aluminum Smelting Workers
Σάβατο, 02.01.2014, 03:00am
Objectives: To analyze cognitive functions and tau-protein expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes of retired aluminum (Al)-exposed workers.Methods: A total of 66 retired Al potroom workers and 70 unexposed controls were investigated. The cognitive functions were assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination. The tau-protein expression in peripheral blood lymphocyte was analyzed with Western blot.Results: The cognitive functions of the exposed group were significantly decreased. Twelve mild cognitive impairment cases in the exposed group and four mild cognitive impairment cases in the control group were diagnosed. Significantly higher p-tau181 and p-tau231 levels were detected in the Al-exposed workers than in the control group.Conclusions: The study suggests that long-term exposure to Al may cause cognitive disorders and that p-tau181 and p-tau231 might be useful indicators for monitoring cognitive decline in Al-exposed workers.
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